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Directed graphs, Graph theory


Let V = {1, · · · n} be a vertex set and S a non-negative row-stochastic matrix (i.e. rows sum to 1). V and S define a digraph G = G(V, S) and a directed graph Laplacian L as follows. If (S)ij > 0 (in what follows we will leave out the parentheses) there is a directed edge j → i. Thus the ith row of S identifies the edges coming into vertex i and their weights. This set of vertices are collectively the neighbors of i, and is denoted by Ni . The diagonal elements Sii are chosen such that each row sum equals 1. In particular, if a vertex i has no incoming edges, we choose Sii = 1. For the purposes of this work, we define the Laplacian by...


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