Physical Review A
Stopping power (Nuclear physics)
The Bethe stopping-power theory is considered in the context of heavy target atoms in which the relativistic effects of the target electrons are partially accounted for within the semirelativistic and independent-particle description. Numerical results show that, for target elements with large atomic numbers, these relativistic effects can become comparable with other corrections such as the shell correction, the Barkas effect, and the Bloch term.
Leung, P. T. (1989). Bethe stopping-power theory for heavy-target atoms. Physical Review A, 40(9), 5417-5419.