Start Date

20-4-2017 10:30 AM

End Date

20-4-2017 11:45 AM


Bertha Knight Landes (1868-1943), Dorothy McCullough Lee (1901- ), Seattle (Wash.) -- Politics and government, Portland (Or.) -- Politics and government, Women mayors -- Oregon, Women mayors -- Washington (State)


Municipal housekeeping in America arose after the fall of the progressive era. The nation faced political corruption, high crime rates, and civic disarray. Elite clubwomen took it upon themselves to step forward and clean up their communities. In the Pacific Northwest, Bertha Landes and Dorothy McCullough Lee were two of the most influential municipal housekeepers. Bertha Landes was mayor of Seattle in 1926 and Dorothy Lee was mayor of Portland in 1949. Both mayors fought gender bias and prejudice while cleaning up their city’s streets and morals. From 1926 to 1949, the fundamentals behind municipal housekeeping did not change, but the public’s opinions and beliefs on women’s rights and place in the political sphere had. This shift in public opinion determined the success of Dorothy Lee’s campaign, and continues to influence female politicians.

Persistent Identifier


Apr 20th, 10:30 AM Apr 20th, 11:45 AM

Progressive Era Aftermath-analysis of Municipal Housekeeping: Bertha K. Landes and Dorothy McCullough Lee