Nanoparticles, Impedance spectroscopy, Electrochromic devices, X-rays -- Diffraction
Electrochromic effects of antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles are investigated to probe device yellowing (degradation). Voltage vs contrast ratio curves exhibit hysteresis, i.e., image-sticking phenomena due to irreversible charge insertion. X-ray, impedance and optical b* studies suggest that the yellowing/charge trapping is nanoparticle size-dependent with 4 nm size particles exhibiting the least yellowing. Yellowing results in increased impedances of electrode–electrolyte interface and electrode corrosion. Plausible sources of discoloration are formation of insulating complex alkali oxide film, carrier inversion (n-to-p type) through electrochemical Li doping, redeposition of the corroded electrode material and perhaps residual concentration of charge-transfer species.
Chan, Joo C.; Hannah, Nicole A.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Yeager, Laura; Dinescu, Liviu; Saraswat, Ashok; Iyer, Pradeep; and Coleman, James P., "Comments on the Mechanism of Aging of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Based Electrochromic Devices" (2006). Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations. 83.