Laser beams -- Scattering, Laser beams -- Scattering -- Mathematical models, Fourier transformations
The authors report a new theory that describes the scattering of an upward propagating laser beam from the sea through the air-sea interface in the presence of sea waves. The sea is assumed to be a uniform dielectric and conventional scattering theory is employed by using a modification to the first Born approximation that permits treatment of surface refraction phenomena. Methods of statistical radiometry are also used in a new manner by assuming that the surface scattering function for the sea waves can be treated by a quasi-homogeneous source model to calculate the second-order correlation functions for the partially coherent scattered field. These correlation functions yield a simple expression for the radiant intensity of the scattered field as the convolution of the Fourier transform of the complex degree of spectral coherence for the sea waves with the squared modulus of the angular spectrum of plane waves for the incident laser beam. We believe that this theory is a significant improvement over the models that are usually used for modeling this phenomenon.
W. H. Carter and D. D. Duncan, “Scattering of a Light Beam from Waves at an Air-Sea Interface,” Applied Optics, V. 32, pp. 3286-3294 (1993)