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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

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An existing technique for passive bottom-loss estimation from natural marine surface noise (generated by waves and wind) is adapted to use noise generated by ships. The original approach—based on beamforming of the noise field recorded by a vertical line array of hydrophones—is retained; however, additional processing is needed in order for the field generated by a passing ship to show features that are similar to those of the natural surface-noise field. A necessary requisite is that the ship position, relative to the array, varies over as wide a range of steering angles as possible, ideally passing directly over the array to ensure coverage of the steepest angles. The methodology is illustrated through simulation and applied to data from a field experiment conducted offshore of San Diego, CA in 2009.


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