Archaeological Investigations at 45CL1 Cathlapotle (1991-1996) , Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Clark County, Washington: a Preliminary Report
The preparation of this series of reports is supported by U.S. Fish and Wildlife contract number F14PX00232. Kenneth M. Ames is the editor of this series, Kathryn Henry is the production manager. We want to thank Anan Raymond for his unflagging support of the Wapato Valley Archaeological Project and the work at Cathlapotle since 1991, including his finding the money to produce this report series. Beyond Anan, there are a lot of people and institutions to thank. Supporting Institutions: Portland State University ♦ Chinook Indian Nation ♦ Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde ♦ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ♦ Portland State University Department of Anthropology, & College of Lib-eral Arts and Sciences ♦ National Science Foundation ♦ National Endowment for the Humanities ♦ Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropoloical Research ♦ National Park Service ♦ University of Michi-gan ♦ Simon Fraser University ♦ Jean and Ray Auel Foundation ♦ Friends of the Wapato Valley. Individuals and Groups: Gary Johnson ♦ Tony Johnson ♦ Sam Robinson ♦ Cinde Ede ♦ Virginia Parks, Alex Bourdeau, Nick Valentine: Regional USFWS Staff ♦ Staff of Ridgefield Wildlife Refuge – too many to list ♦ Friends of the Ridgefield Refuge ♦ Don Meier ♦ People of Scappoose, Oregon ♦ People of Ridgefield and Clark County Washington. Colleagues: Cameron Smith, Portland State University ♦ Elizabeth Sobel, Missouri State University ♦ Jon Daehnke, University of California, Santa Cruz ♦ Ann Trieu Gahr, Southern Illinois University ♦ R. Lee Lyman, University of Missouri ♦ Virginia Butler, Portland State University ♦ Gay Frederick, Pacific ID ♦ Dong-ya Yang, Simon Fraser University ♦ Loren Davis, Oregon State University ♦ Kory Cooper, Purdue Uni-versity ♦ Greg Baker, Portland State University ♦ William Gardner-O’Kearny, Portland State University. This list does not include Portland State University Field School students from 1987 – 1996, the field school staffs, nor the many paid and volunteer lab workers. To them we owe a particularly deep debt of gratitude.
Wapato Valley Archaeology Project report, #7.; Cultural resource series (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Region 1), no. 13.
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Washington (State) -- Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Historic preservation -- Washington (State) -- Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Chinook Indians -- Antiquities, Ridgefield (Wash.) -- Antiquities
This is the preliminary report, one in a series on the archaeology of the Wapato Valley region of the Lower Columbia River. Most of the reports discuss aspects of the excavations and archaeology of two sites, the Meier site (35CO5) and Cathlapotle site (45CL1). Other related topics are also treated.
Archaeological investigations at site 45CL1, Clark County, Washington, demonstrate that the locality is a very large (c 1.5ha), deeply stratified (2-4m) town site with an occupation spanning at least 1000 years (c. AD 1000 to 1840). Six large, complex depressions have been mapped. Test excavations show that these depressions represent the semisubterranean portions of residential structures, probably large plankhouses of the type common on the Lower Columbia River and the Northwest Coast in aboriginal times. The depressions may represent as many as 11 such dwellings. A seventh depression is deeply buried beneath midden deposits. The cultural deposits contain very high densities of artifacts, ecofacts (including both faunal and floral remains), debris and features.
The site is near the Columbia River on a very active flood plain, resulting in site stratigraphy produced by a combination of active cultural and alluvial depositional processes. Site 45CL1, given its location and size, is the best candidate to be the site of Cathlapotle, a Middle Chinookan town visited by Lewis and Clark in 1806, as well as by other early Europeans in the area. The site is extraordinarily well preserved, having undergone only minor alterations since its abandonment, probably in the third or fourth decade of the 19th century AD.
Ames, K. M., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service., & Portland State University. (1999). Archaeological investigations at 45CL1 Cathlapotle (1991-1996), Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, Washington: A preliminary report. Portland, Or: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Meier Cathlapotle Data Catalogs Overview.docx (15 kB)
Artifact Variable Definitions.docx (18 kB)
Cathlapotle Administrative Catalog.xls (2727 kB)
Meier Administrative Catalog.xls (5367 kB)
Master Type List and Catalog Counts.xlsx (31 kB)
Cathlapotle Unit Volumes.xlsx (81 kB)
Meier Unit Volumes.xls (118 kB)
Cathlapotle Grid System Map.pdf (171 kB)
Meier Units Map.jpg (30 kB)
Related Works Meier and Cathlapotle Theses, Dissertations, Reports, and Publications.doc (109 kB)
Descriptions of the attached supplemental files and more information about this report series and metadata:
Meier Cathlapotle Data Catalogs Overview
(See Also Part V of Report 11 for additional details.)
These files contain lists of all excavated units at both sites, with their various designations. Both sites had standard cartesian grids, so the file lists units according to their grid designations. Each unit at both sites also has an alpha-numeric designation and these are listed. For each unit listed, there are starting and ending elevations for each excavation level, as well as that level’s designation in the system of components, facilities, and locations. These dimensions are used to develop a paradigmatic classification for all levels, which are combined in various ways to create Analytical Units (AU). At the bottom of the spreadsheets are tallies of the volumes of the various AUs used for the analyses.
Two maps are attached -- one of the Cathlapotle grid system and excavation units (there is no such map included in any of the reports) and a map of the Meier units with each unit’s alpha-numeric designation. This map does appear in various reports. There is a map of the Meier grid and excavation units, but it includes only the units in and immediately adjacent to the house and hence is not included. The map here has all units.
Metadata for the analytical files is included in the relevant file if it is not available in the report. For example, the metadata for bone and antler tools is in Fuld’s report on the osseous artifacts. On the other hand, the analytical files for ground and pecked stone tools have a tab labelled “Dimensions” which contains the relevant metadata since there is no full report on these artifacts (only the ground stone files have this tab). There is also a sheet of metadata for the lithics analyses included (hence no Dimensions tab). We are including analytical catalogs of material on which we have not reported or published, primarily the light and heavy lithic tools. People are obviously free to use these data, but we will be publishing on them.
While all of the analytical catalogs contain the same provenience and AU information, be aware that they are not necessarily in the same format. The data sheets were prepared by the various analysts and it was too large a task to either impose complete uniformity or to standardize the data sheets after they were completed. In an ideal situation (well funded, well staffed) we would have used ACCESS@ for data management. However, Access has a steeper learning curve than Excel; we had a largish number of students and consultants involved, all with differing data entry-management skills; Excel met our needs the best.
There no files for this report.
The file contains the feature catalogs for Meier and Cathlapotle.
The file contains catalogs for glass, glass trade beads, non-cupreous metal, and ceramics at both sites.
The file contains analytical catalogs for light and heavy chipped stone, ground and pecked and osseous artifacts at both sites. There is also a file (Meier Cathlapotle LIT_COMB_ALL data) that includes summary listing and measurements for all analyzed lithic tools at both sites.
The file contains analytical catalogs for faunal remains. The Bird catalogs are self evident. The mammal catalogs have three tabs, the note tab explaining the other two. Basically, the first tab is the data as reported by Lyman, the second is a temporal control data set; we removed data with poor or ambiguous provenience. We use this data set throughout, hence our totals may differ from Lyman’s.
There is a Fish subfile which includes the data files provided by Butler, Frederick and Rosenberg. The Rosenberg files are SPSS files imported into Excel, and have her metadata. Rosenberg and Butler shared the same data format, so Butler’s metadata is the same as Rosenberg’s. The Meier fish data are contained in a single file. The Cathlapotle files are separated by analyst and by whether they originate from screened or bulk samples. Butler’s screened file (“Excavated matrix”) has three tabs, the original data, ¼” mesh non-house, and 1/8” mesh, which is also non-house. Rosenberg’s non-bulk sample file includes Butler’s samples from the Cathlapotle houses as well as all of Rosenberg’s. The reader is referred to the screen size and sampling discussions in the relevant reports. Frederick’s file is straightforward.
There no files for this report.