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saturated fatty acid, Monocytes, Macrophages, palmitic acid, innate immune memory, western diet, ketogenic diet, trained immunity, priming, metabolism, epigenetics, inflammation, chylomicron, ceramide, toll-like receptor, CD36, hematopoietic stem cell, oleic acid


Dietary saturated fats have recently been appreciated for their ability to modify innate immune cell function, including monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Many dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) embark on a unique pathway through the lymphatics following digestion, and this makes them intriguing candidates for inflammatory regulation during homeostasis and disease. Specifically, palmitic acid (PA) and diets enriched in PA have recently been implicated in driving innate immune memory in mice. PA has been shown to induce long-lasting hyper-inflammatory capacity against secondary microbial stimuli in vitro and in vivo, and PA-enriched diets alter the developmental trajectory of stem cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Perhaps the most relevant finding is the ability of exogenous PA to enhance clearance of fungal and bacterial burdens in mice; however, the same PA treatment enhances endotoxemia severity and mortality. Westernized countries are becoming increasingly dependent on SFAenriched diets, and a deeper understanding of SFA regulation of innate immune memory is imperative in this pandemic era.


Copyright © 2023 The Author(s), Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This paper is published under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (



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