Funding for this research was generously provided by the National Institutes of Health (AI51629).
Polyketides, Polyketide synthases, Antiviral agents -- Synthesis, Isomerism
The majority of modular polyketide synthase (PKS) systems which generate unsaturated products do so with trans double bonds. Phoslactomycin B (PLM B) presents a class of antitumor and antiviral natural polyketide products that have unique structural features, including a linear unsaturated backbone with one trans and three cis double bonds. There is substantial evidence that trans double bonds are established by ketoreductase-dehydratase (KR-DH) didomains within a PKS module. In cases where modules containing these didomains appear to generate product containing a cis double bond there is no experimental evidence to determine if they do so directly, or if they also form a trans double bond with a subsequent isomerization step. A critical step in addressing this issue is establishing the stereochemistry of the polyketide intermediate which passes to the subsequent module. Herein, we demonstrate through a series of experiments that an activated cis-3-cyclohexylpropenoic acid is the diketide intermediate which passes from module 1 to module 2 of the PLM PKS. The trans isomer of the diketide intermediate could not be processed directly into PLM B by module 2, but could be converted to PLM B by degradation to cyclohexanecarboxylic acid and elongation by the entire PLM PKS. These observations indicate not only that module 1 with a DH-KR didomain is responsible for establishing C14–C15 cis double bond of PLM B, but that the subsequent modules of the PKS clearly discriminate between the cis and trans-diketide intermediate and do not contain domains capable of catalyzing double bond isomerization.
Alhamadsheh, Mamoun M.; Palaniappan, Nadaraj; DasChouduri, Suparna; and Reynolds, Kevin A., "Modular Polyketide Synthases and cis Double Bond Formation: Establishment of Activated cis-3-Cyclohexylpropenoic Acid as the Diketide Intermediate in Phoslactomycin Biosynthesis" (2007). Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations. 172.