Altering Fundamental Trends in the Emission of Xanthene Dyes
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R15EB016870).
The Journal of Organic Chemistry
Fluorescent small molecules enable researchers and clinicians to visualize biological events in living cells, tissues, and organs in real time. Herein, the focus is on the structure and properties of the relatively rare benzo[ a]xanthenes that exhibit enhanced steric and electronic interactions due to their annulated structures. Three types of fluorophores were synthesized: (i) pH- and solvent-dependent seminaphthorhodafluors, (ii) pH- and solvent-independent seminaphthorhodafluors, and (iii) pH-independent but solvent-sensitive seminaphthorhodamines. The probes exhibited promising far-red to near-infrared (NIR) emission, large Stoke shifts, broad full width at half-maximum (fwhm), relatively high quantum yields, and utility in immunofluorescence staining. Deviation of the Ï€-system from planarity due to changes in the fluorophore ionization state resulted in fluorescence properties that are atypical of common xanthene dyes.
Locate the Document
Wang, L. G., Munhenzva, I., Sibrian-Vázquez, M., Escobedo, J. O., Kitts, C. H., Fronczek, F. R., & Strongin, R. M. (2019). Altering Fundamental Trends in the Emission of Xanthene Dyes. The Journal of organic chemistry.