Effect of Repeated Glucagon Doses on Hepatic Glycogen in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for a Bihormonal Closed-Loop System
This work was supported by grants from JDRF, M.J. Murdock Charitable Trust, the HEDCO Foundation, the Good Samaritan Foundation (Portland, OR), and the National Institutes of Health (grant T32-DK-007674). This publication was also supported by the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences at the National Institutes of Health (grant UL1-TR-000128).
OBJECTIVE To evaluate subjects with type 1 diabetes for hepatic glycogen depletion after repeated doses of glucagon, simulating delivery in a bihormonal closed-loop system.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eleven adult subjects with type 1 diabetes participated. Subjects underwent estimation of hepatic glycogen using 13C MRS. MRS was performed at the following four time points: fasting and after a meal at baseline, and fasting and after a meal after eight doses of subcutaneously administered glucagon at a dose of 2 µg/kg, for a total mean dose of 1,126 µg over 16 h. The primary and secondary end points were, respectively, estimated hepatic glycogen by MRS and incremental area under the glucose curve for a 90-min interval after glucagon administration.
RESULTS In the eight subjects with complete data sets, estimated glycogen stores were similar at baseline and after repeated glucagon doses. In the fasting state, glycogen averaged 21 ± 3 g/L before glucagon administration and 25 ± 4 g/L after glucagon administration (mean ± SEM) (P = NS). In the fed state, glycogen averaged 40 ± 2 g/L before glucagon administration and 34 ± 4 g/L after glucagon administration (P = NS). With the use of an insulin action model, the rise in glucose after the last dose of glucagon was comparable to the rise after the first dose, as measured by the 90-min incremental area under the glucose curve.
CONCLUSIONS In adult subjects with well-controlled type 1 diabetes (mean A1C 7.2%), glycogen stores and the hyperglycemic response to glucagon administration are maintained even after receiving multiple doses of glucagon. This finding supports the safety of repeated glucagon delivery in the setting of a bihormonal closed-loop system.
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Castle, J. R., El Youssef, J., Bakhtiani, P. A., Cai, Y., Stobbe, J. M., Branigan, D., … Ward, W. K. (2015). Effect of Repeated Glucagon Doses on Hepatic Glycogen in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for a Bihormonal Closed-Loop System. Diabetes care, 38(11), 2115–2119. doi:10.2337/dc15-0754