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European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

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Paramagnetic contrast media, Europium, Chelates, Macrocyclic compounds, Ligands (Biochemistry), Contrast media (Diagnostic imaging), Magnetic resonance imaging


ParaCEST (paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer) agents offer an unparalleled opportunity to perform quantitative molecular imaging by MRI. Agents that can alter the image contrast they generate in response to changes in local environmental parameters such as pH, glucose concentration or lactate concentration can be used ratiometrically to quantitatively describe the local tissue environment. However, when performing such quantitative measurements it is important that the results are not confounded by changes in a second environmental parameter. In vivo pressure varies quite considerably, both through the respiratory cycle and from tissue to tissue (tumors in particular have high interstitial pressures). Since paraCEST agents have positive activation volumes, their exchange kinetics and therefore the CEST effect that they generate are necessarily related to pressure. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the relatively small changes in pressure exhibited in vivo could affect CEST sufficiently to confound attempts to quantify other local environmental parameters. The CEST properties of a rigid EuDOTA-tetraamide was examined at temperatures ranging from 288 to 319 K, at applied pressures ranging from 0 to 414 kPa and pre-saturation (B1) powers ranging from 524 to 935 Hz. At no point was pressure found to affect the CEST generated by this chelate, indicating that changes in in vivo pressure is unlikely to confound the quantitative measurement of physiologically relevant parameters by paraCEST MRI.


This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. 2012 Apr 1;2012(12):2040-2043.



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