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Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics, Image Science and Vision

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Gaussian beams -- Mathematical models, Laser beams, Lasers, Reflectance, Optoelectronic devices -- Calibration


A novel 3 × 3 transfer-matrix method is developed to propagate off-axis Gaussian beams in astigmatic optical systems that may include tilted, displaced, or curved optical elements. Unlike in a previous generalized ray matrix formalism, optical elements that possess gain or loss such as Gaussian apertures, complex lenslike media, and amplifiers are included; and a new beam transformation is found. In addition, a novel exponential variable-reflectivity mirror, which displaces a Gaussian beam without changing its spot size, and a complex prismlike medium are introduced.


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