Professor John Hall
Journal of Economic Literature Classification Codes
F14, F51, F54, N82
American Colonialism, Chinese History, Opium Trade
This inquiry seeks to establish that American merchants exacerbated China’s 19th century opium epidemic. Circumventing Britain’s monopoly of Indian opium, three men, Thomas Perkins, John Cushing, and Robert Forbes, played a key role in American consolidation of Turkish opium production. With malice and blatant disregard, numerous Americans pumped tens of thousands of chests of opium into China, creating fabulous riches and incredibly influential familial dynasties while simultaneously destroying the minds and bodies of an untold number of Chinese.
Pence, Karson M. "The American Opium Trade, Working Paper No. 37", Portland State University Economics Working Papers. 37. (15 December 2019) i + 17 pages.