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Publishers and publishing, Book industries and trade


Several methods were used in my research. A literature review was used to define artificial intelligence (AI) in general and in relation to how it’s used in literature today. I also relied heavily on Dr Leah Henrickson’s work on Natural Language Generation (NLG), which discusses authorship and roles between authors and readers.

Several case studies were used in my research. Liam Porr’s Guardian Op-ed was reviewed as his team used humans to edit GPT-3 output for a coherent article, much like I used it in a focus group. The Kimagure Artificial Intelligence Writer’s Project was also evaluated. The writing for the project was composed by humans and AI subsequently restructured the novel. I also examined several projects Andreas Refsgaard is working on. Refsgaard is a coder who uses his skills to influence art, and he is pushing the boundaries of collaboration between human artists and machines. He has created an online bookstore that sells AI generated Science Fiction novels. This helped me explore the idea of AI generated writing as a genre of its own.

A focus group was used to evaluate reader opinions of AI-written/enhanced work vs. human-written work. A human-written short story of fiction of approximately 1300 words was used as a baseline. That story was then segmented, taking out critical portions of the narrative, and AI was allowed to fill in the missing information. I used of GPT-3, the same software used in the Guardian Op-ed by Liam Porr, for the AI narrative. I then recruited eleven volunteers for the focus group, asked them to read both samples, and answer questions about both stories afterword.

Finally, interviews were conducted with those working in the field to use or advance AI in writing. Dr. Leah Henrickson, who is a professor of Digital Media at the University of Leeds, gives a framework for understanding how computers learn through algorithms. She also helped shape my thoughts around the ethical use of AI. An interview with Liam Porr focused on how he worked with GPT-3, and which ways he found most effective to work with the program. Allison Parrish, a professor at New York University who uses bots to explore language and poetry, was interviewed to discuss the role bots play in relation to language. She was also instrumental in helping me see other ethical factors when exploring machine-generated content.


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Paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Writing: Book Publishing.

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