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Technological Forecasting & Social Change

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Electric vehicles -- Testing and Research, Developing countries Renewable energies -- MCDM, Neutrophic sets -- RAFSI approach


This study focuses on implementing electric vehicles (EVs) in developing countries where energy production is mainly based on fossil fuels. Although for these countries the environmental short-run benefits of the EVs cannot offset the short-run costs, it may still be the best option to implement the EVs as soon as possible. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the alternatives to introducing EVs to the market due to the environmental concerns that created an opportunity for some developing countries to catch up with the international competition. Therefore, we develop a case scenario to explore the decision-making process in implementing the EVs with three alternatives and twelve criteria. We solve the decision-making problem by using Type-2 neutrosophic numbers (T2NNs) based on the RAFSI (Ranking of Alternatives through Functional mapping of criterion sub-intervals into a Single Interval) method. The proposed model combines the advantages of the RAFSI technique, and it applies T2NNs to address the uncertainties. The results show that the alternatives that may suspend the implementation of the EVs are inferior. Direct implementation of EVs is prioritized. The policy implications of the results are discussed in the study.


© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (



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