Socio-Ecological Interactions in the National Forests and Grasslands of Central Oregon: A Summary of Human Ecology Mapping Results
David Banis, Rebecca McLain, Alicia Milligan, Krystle N. Harrell, and Lee Cerveny
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 8
In 2015, Portland State University, the US Forest Service’s Pacific Northwest Research Station, Deschutes National Forest (DNF), Ochoco National Forest (ONF), US Forest Service Region 6, and Discover Your Forest embarked on a collaborative project to understand spatial patterns of public use on the national forests and grasslands of Central Oregon and the ecosystem benefits attached to those places. At the time the project began, the DNF and ONF anticipated that they would be revising their forest/grassland plans in the near future. This human ecology mapping project generated socio-spatial data layers describing the myriad connections people have with these public lands.
Data were gathered in 2016-2017 using an online survey that included both an interactive web map and a set of closed and open-ended questions. The map-based survey elicited data about six major themes: 1) Locations of important places; 2) Activities engaged in at those places; 3) Benefits associated with those places; 4) Features, (physical and built) that were most important at those places; 5) Social environment that participants preferred; 6) Threats and management concerns for the identified places. The mapping survey was followed by a series of demographic questions and questions aimed at eliciting participant views on natural resources and the environment.
Both online and offline survey strategies were used with a large majority of the data collected online. A total of 542 individuals participated in the mapping surveys, resulting in the collection of 2038 useable points. For the spatial data, kernel density analysis was used to show how points were spatially concentrated for different characteristics. Diversity and frequency ratio calculations were also performed, and the data were disaggregated to show results for each ranger district individually.
Rebecca J. McLain, Lee Cerveny, Diane Besser, David Banis, Alexa Todd, Stephanie Rohdy, and Corinna Kimball-Brown
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 7
The advent of computerized mapping has land managers’ ability to map the biophysical services provided by forested ecosystems. However, mapping the cultural services of those systems is more challenging. Human ecology mapping (HEM), which provides spatially-explicit depictions of the complex connections between humans and their environment, is an approach that can be used to improve understandings of the cultural services associated with landscapes. This atlas provides an overview of what HEM is and draws on experiences with a pilot project on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington to illustrate what HEM data looks like and some of the ways in which it can be analyzed. Values and activity data were collected during 2010 and 2011 from 169 residents through a series of community workshops held on the peninsula. Density and diversity analysis indicated that the type of values and activities mapped as well as their spatial configuration and distribution differed depending on factors such as place of residence and gender. Values and activities were most strongly associated with national forest and state lands, and moderate to moderately steep terrain. The analyses exploring the relationship between values/activities and vegetation type and proximity to roads were inconclusive. Results from the pilot project indicated that HEM is not only useful for identifying where meaningful places and activities are concentrated, but also can help reveal important differences among subgroups as well as areas where conflicts in values and activities exist.
Rebecca D. Hixson and Teresa L. Bulman
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 6
This guide begins at the summit of Mount Rainier and, like a drop of water, descends toward the sea. It provides information about geological, hydrological, geographical, biological and historical aspects of the Nisqually watershed. It describes the natural resources in the area and identifies how the use of those resources affects water resources and quantity.
In the course of this trip, you will be able to follow the Nisqually River along its journey from the summit of Mount Rainier to the Puget Sound and learn about the changes that have occurred within this 720-square-mile-watershed over the past 200 years, the problems that have arisen and the efforts that are being taken to protect this valuable and scenic area.
John D. Rockie
Occasional Paper in Geography Publication No. 5
At the time of William A. Rockie's death in 1981 he was in the process of preparing a monograph for the 'Occasional Papers in Geography' series at Portland State University. The monograph was to recount his long career as a professional geographer. He had started in the late 1970's writing his recollections in a random fashion. After Rockie's death several people from the Geography Department at Portland State University discussed the unfinished work with Rockie's son, John, who agreed to assume responsibility for organizing what Rockie had written and expand on it as needed to finish the monograph. Professors Courtney and Price agreed to help in editing.
Except where noted, the narratives that follow are in W.A Rockie's words (subject to the limitations of editing), as he had written them, some many years ago, others in the years just before his death. Most of the writing that Rockie did in the late 1970's dealt with his experiences from the early 1900's until the late 1940's. Particularly sparse were periods in the late 1940's, late 1950's and from the 1960's on. For those periods, his son, John Rockie, made liberal use of diaries, as well as papers and publications written by W.A Rockie.
Larry W. Price, Daniel M. Johnson, James A. Ashbaugh, Steve Dotterrer, Carl Abbott, Thomas M. Poulsen, Richard Lycan, Gil Latz, Kenneth Dueker, Sheldon Edner, William A. Rabiega, Steven R. Kale, Patrick E. Corcoran, Glenn Vanselow, F. E. Ian Hamilton, Nancy J. Chapman, and Joan Starker
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 4
What is the nature and character of Portland? What are the conditions, changes and developments that have made it what it is? How does Portland compare with other places? What makes it unique? These are some of the question pursued in this volume.
This book contains thirteen chapters discussing various facets of Portland's environmental, economy, and character. It is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of dynamics and change in the landscape. An overview is provided of Portland as a city and place to live, as well as its functional significance on a national and international basis.
Two threads are woven through the tapestry of these essays. One is that Portland is a big city but with many attributes of a small town. The other is the closeness and accessibility of city and nature. The challenge is how to nurture and maintain both - to have our cake and eat it too. The evidence is clear that most American cities have not been able to achieve this. Only the future can tell how Portland will fare.
The authors are all professional geographers or work in closely related fields. All have been involved with the Portland scene for a number of years and are uniquely qualified to write about these topics. While each approaches problems from his or her own perspective, the net result is a summing up, a taking stock of where we have been and where we are going. When considered as a whole the book should provide a better view than we have had of the nature and character of this special place.
Keith R. Mountain and Richard Lycan
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 3
This program is primarily designed as an interactive instructional aid for students concerned with select aspects of shortwave radiation climatology. On the basis of user supplied temporal and geographic information the algorithm will produce instantaneous values of diffuse, direct, global, reflected, net shortwave and extraterrestrial radiation. Daily totals are also generated by numerical approximation of the area under the curve as described by each of these quantities. In addition, an optional routine to compute the instantaneous values of solar elevations and azimuths is included to further define the nature of astronomical relationships for the site under investigation. The overall structure of the program is such that the appropriate variables can be easily and conveniently manipulated to provide an accurate estimate of the shortwave radiative balance at a given point with a minimal knowledge of the relevant mathematics and of FORTRAN computer programming. It is hoped that the interested student will investigate the range of possibilities offered by this routine and use it as a stepping stone to the understanding of the many fundamental concepts involved in shortwave radiative transfer and its geographical distribution.
John O. Dart
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 2
This field guide is the outgrowth of several years experience conducting field courses in conservation and environment and the recognition that little has been prepared for this area through which thousands of Oregonians travel each year, particularly during the summer season.
Larry W. Price
Occasional Papers in Geography Publication No. 1
This guide is an outgrowth of field trips I have made with students in biogeography classes at Portland State University. When I first began these field trips I was surprised that such a guide was not available. It seemed such a natural thing to have, given the spectacular laboratory of the Cascades where is displayed one of the most dramatic sequences of contrasting environments on earth. Within less than 100 miles you pass from a cloudy marine climate to a semi-arid continental climate, from a lush green land with towering trees to desert shrub.
The field trip is essentially from Portland to Maupin. Specifically it follows U.S. Highway 26 from Gresham to Government Camp, where it takes the loop road up to Timberline Lodge and back, then continues on U.S. 26 to the junction with State Highway 216 which cuts directly east to Maupin (Centerplate). This route is ideal for such a trip in that most of the major vegetation types of the Cascades are displayed along the way. In addition, the highway passes very near Mount Hood and affords an opportunity to observe the ecotone between treeline and a tundra-like environment. The major weakness of the route is that it does not run directly east-west so the rapidity of changing environments is reduced. Nevertheless, next to the Columbia River Gorge, this is the most heavily used pass in the Oregon Cascades, and it is hoped that more people will take advantage of the field trip as a result.