Glaciers -- Climatic factors, Glacial microorganisms, Glacier -- Meltwater, Proglacial environment, Water residence time
Microbial communities and nutrient dynamics in glaciers and ice sheets continuously change as the hydrological conditions within and on the ice change. Glaciers and ice sheets can be considered bioreactors as microbiomes transform nutrients that enter these icy systems and alter the meltwater chemistry. Global warming is increasing meltwater discharge, affecting nutrient and cell export, and altering proglacial systems. In this review, we integrate the current understanding of glacial hydrology, microbial activity, and nutrient and carbon dynamics to highlight their interdependence and variability on daily and seasonal time scales, as well as their impact on proglacial environments.
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Varliero, G., Lebre, P. H., Frey, B., Fountain, A. G., Anesio, A. M., & Cowan, D. A. (2023). Glacial Water: A Dynamic Microbial Medium. Microorganisms, 11(5), 1153.