First Advisor

Sarah Key-DeLyria

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Speech and Hearing Sciences and University Honors


Speech and Hearing Sciences




Emojis, Reading, Mood (Psychology)




With recent advancements in technology, emoji are continuously changing the way that people communicate and process language. Their use continues to evolve as a mechanism to counter the loss of the rich nonverbal cues of face-to-face communication. Subsequently, the need for research examining how emoji are processed and how they affect language and communication has become more important. This research specifically examines the scholarship on emoji effects on sentence reading times (RT) and how this relates to mood. Results on the effects of emoji on sentence RT are mixed. In some instances, emoji slowed RT and in others, they sped up RT. Research on emoji placement shows slowed RT for emoji in the sentence-final position, whereas other research shows no effect of emoji placement on RT. This literature review suggests emoji type (face emoji vs noun emoji) and text type (conversation vs narrative) as possible factors contributing to these differing results. No research examining the relationship between the effects of emoji on RT and mood was found. Understanding the collective effects of emoji on RT not only aids in improving the effective use of emoji in daily communication but uncovers areas that are in need of further research.


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