First Advisor

Aaron Roussell

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Economics and University Honors






Collective labor agreements -- Police -- Oregon -- Portland, Police misconduct -- Oregon -- Portland, Police administration -- Oregon -- Portland, Police -- Labor unions -- Oregon -- Portland




Despite a growing widespread recognition that police unions represent a major component of policing and have major influences on aspects of policing such as disciplinary procedures, day-to-day management, and police-community relations, they have until recently been largely ignored by police scholars. In light of significant gaps in knowledge regarding police unions and the impacts that they have on law enforcement behavior and police accountability, this paper utilizes a case study approach to analyze all existing union contracts between the Portland Police Association (PPA) and the City of Portland in order to explore the prevalence of particular contract provisions that critics have placed under scrutiny as having the ability to impede fair and thorough investigations of officer misconduct or otherwise inhibit accountability. Findings show that PPA all contracts dating back from 1969 contain at least one provision that has the potential to thwart accountability efforts. Findings also show a general trend of increasing additional controversial provisions over the course of elapsing contract bargaining agreements.


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