First Advisor

Alissa Hartig

Date of Award

Summer 8-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Applied Linguistics and University Honors


Applied Linguistics




Communication in small groups, Conversation analysis, Small groups -- Research, Science -- Study and teaching




Science education researchers have increasingly been using discourse analysis to research small group discussion while doing course related activities. This literature review examined studies from that discourse community to see what analysis methods were used and if they connected to applied linguistics theories or methods. Two of the most common discourse analysis frameworks used were Toulmin's Argument Pattern and grounded coding schemes that looked at the design and specific contents of the discourse. Studies covered will also include education scholars using theories of conversation analysis and normative pragmatics to make a more explicit connection to applied linguistics. Orienting and drawing from applied linguistics can benefit science education researchers in their continuous exploration of methods to measure student learning outcomes through their discourse in small group discussions.


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