First Advisor

Sybil Kelley

Date of Award

Spring 6-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Psychology and University Honors






Outdoor education, Attention-deficit-disordered children -- Behavior modification, Attention-deficit-disordered children -- Education, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder -- Treatment




ADHD diagnoses and pharmaceutical treatment have increased dramatically within this century. However, non-pharmaceutical treatments have not reflected this increase. One area where those diagnosed often struggle the most is within academic settings. This study argues for the benefit of outdoor education for students with ADHD, and suggests the importance of future research on this topic. In this study I examine the recent history of ADHD and evaluate trends in treatment, particularly green space as a form of treatment. These studies show both immediate and long-term benefits within a variety of settings. Within these studies, I identified a research gap in outdoor treatment within school settings. As well, I evaluate several studies of outdoor education within neurotypical populations and draw connections between the benefits found and how they would meet the needs of ADHD students. Examples include increases in self-regulation, self-efficacy, positive social interactions, and focus: areas of struggle for ADHD students. Given the benefit of nature education in a variety of settings as well as the specific benefits outdoor education provides to students (increases in self-regulation, self-efficacy, positive social interactions, and focus), I argue that we have sufficient evidence to suggest that outdoor education would benefit students with ADHD.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).

Persistent Identifier