First Advisor

Dean Atkinson

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Chemistry and University Honors




Frozen blood, Blood -- Cryopreservation, Blood -- Transfusion, Blood -- Analysis, Cytokines, Biochemical markers




The transfusion of red blood cells is a necessary therapy used to treat anemia that often results from traumatic hemorrhage. The traditional method of storing red blood cells prior to transfusion in the United States has been as a liquid in a refrigerated fashion at a temperature between two and eight degrees Celsius. Throughout the storage duration, the red cells undergo a series of structural, functional, and biochemical changes commonly known as the storage lesion. Increased length of storage has been associated with increased rates of infection, as well as higher incidents of mortality. We hypothesized that this prospective, randomized, double blinded study would demonstrate that a cryogenic freezing method of storing blood would result in higher tissue oxygenation for the patient, an increased biochemical profile of the blood, and decreased rates of negative outcomes compared to the liquid preservation method.

Adult trauma patients with an injury severity score of greater than 4 and an anticipated need for transfusion of at least one unit of blood were randomized to receive either CPRBCs or LPRBCs. 57 patients were randomized and received blood transfusions as part of either of the two groups. 22 patients received CPRBCs, and 35 patients received LPRBCs. Tissue oxygenation as well as 2,3-DPG concentration, (p

In conclusion, CPRBCs maintain a superior biochemical profile over LPRBCs, as well as provide potential for higher tissue oxygenation in patients, and also present a viable option to combat the severe blood shortage that constantly exists in the United States, by extending the shelf life of RBC units to ten years. This extension of storage time may also result in the prevention of an $80 million loss annually.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).

Persistent Identifier