First Advisor

Leopoldo Rodriguez

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Political Science: International Development and University Honors


Political Science


Soft wheat -- Morocco, Wheat trade -- Morocco, Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Morocco, Food relief -- Morocco, Agriculture and state -- Morocco




Following the conclusion of World War II, Moroccans' khobz—bread—consumption experienced one fundamental and detrimental change: the homogenization of recipes from an assortment of diverse ingredients, such as barley, winter wheat, durum, and seeds, to almost solely soft wheat. The homogenizing trend towards soft wheat is an outcome of Western influence, trade policies, international markets, economic growth and integration. Specifically, the United States' development initiatives—namely Green Revolution technology transfers and food aid—rendered detrimental effects on Moroccan wheat patterns of consumption, production, and import, which were further perpetuated and extended by Moroccan governance post-independence. Analyzing the ramifications of soft wheat patterns on agricultural development is more necessary than ever given the launch of Maroc Vert, a World Bank sponsored project championing development through agriculture stimulus. Overall, the deleterious wheat patterns in Morocco erode domestic production of other grains and co-opt farmland, destabilize the balance of payments, endanger food security, and stymie economic development in rural areas.


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