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Language Teaching Research

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Teachers, Vocational guidance, Vocational teachers -- Training of


Multimodal input – which combines written, auditory, and/or visual modalities – is pervasive in everyday life and could serve as a source of rich input in language teaching. In recent years, research has determined that vocabulary learning is one of the clear benefits of being exposed to such input. Regrettably, only a handful of studies have investigated whether and how second language (L2) teachers approach multimodal input in teaching. To further contribute to the research–practice dialogue, we examined factors that influence L2 teachers’ use of multimodal input in L2 teaching. This qualitative case study presents an in-depth analysis of interview data derived from 21 practitioners in various L2 teaching contexts globally. Following three rounds of data analysis, 24 factors were identified and are presented in four themes. The results indicate that teachers: (1) paid close attention to their students’ needs and goals; (2) drew on their own learning and teaching experiences and training supported by research-based practices; (3) relied on sound pedagogical principles; and (4) faced a number of contextual challenges relevant to their curricula and teaching contexts.


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This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Language Teaching Research Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Language Teaching Researchand is located here:



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