Both texts are printed on watermarked paper, and the volume is bound in wooden boards covered in tooled (stamped) pigskin with brass clasps. The Fasciculus is printed in single columns using Rolewinck's idiosyncratic horizontal timeline layout and is sparsely illustrated with woodcuts. Except for the first three pages, which are printed in single columns with hand-rubricated initials, the text of the Malleus is printed in double columns in black letter type with no rubrication or illustrations.
The title page of the Fasciculus bears a handwritten ex libris and both texts are filled with marginal notes in a sixteenth-century hand, indicating their contemporary use.
The essays in this section explore these extra-textual elements of the codex and what they reveal about its manufacture and its use.
Review, Introduction, and Preliminary Documentation of Marginalia in Portland State University’s Fasciculus Temporum/Malleus Maleficarum Sammelband
This paper presents an overview of the contents of the new database of written marginal notations in Portland State University’s fifteenth-century printed codex, and some of the research threads that can be taken up from a study of those notations.
The motive for this project was an interest in readership usage of the codex and the two books contained within it. It begins by discussing terms that Andi Johnson and I elected to use to tag and name different categories of features, then I discuss some of the findings and possible future research avenues that can expand on them.
Finally, in the appendix, I list written marginalia which are, at least at first glance, deviations from the norm of isolated “nota” and “nota bene.” A number of diverse hands indicate that the codex may contain marks from at least ten different readers. Also of note is an abrupt cut-off of all marginal notation on fol. 72 (of 101 fols.) of the Malleus Maleficarum, which may denote a lack of reader interest in the third section of the book.
Portland State University Library's combined 1490 editions of the Fasciculus temporum and Malleus maleficarum contain over 150 individual marginal markings and notations. These marks have been made by numerous readers throughout the monograph's five-century lifespan.
This report accounts for efforts to construct a tool that would allow future students and scholars to visually compare and organize marks was needed before any in-depth analysis of readership could be made, describing the objectives, processes and applications that have defined its development. The tool that was needed was a visual database that enables the visual comparison of markings within the two texts. This document should act as a project summary and step-by-step guide for use and continued construction of this database.
Marginal notation is extremely common in incunabula. The Portland State University Malleus Maleficarum (1490) is no exception to this trend, and contains various types of marginal notation throughout the text. Among them are three examples of manicules, a form of notation where readers draw a hand to note important sections of a text.
This paper examines the frequency of manicules in fifteen different early copies of the Malleus Maleficarum, along with the sections of the text in which the manicules are concentrated, in order to ascertain whether or not the usage of the PSU Malleus Maleficarum shares similarities with other existing copies and to see if broader patterns in marginal notation of the Malleus can be discerned.
This paper examines Portland State’s 1490 codex as a material object by studying the stamp designs on its covers to determine where and when it may have been bound.
Four stamp designs are discernible, and these were compared to rubbings of stamp designs from fifteenth- and sixteenth-century incunable bindings in the Einbanddatenbank and Scott Husby Database. The findings from this study point to Erfurt, Germany, and more specifically the workshop of Nicolaus von Havelberg (active 1477–1506), as the probable binding site.
This paper and its accompanying research endeavored to locate, catalog, and identify as fully as possible the watermarks observed throughout Portland State University’s (PSU) 1490 bound codex containing the Fasciculus temporum omnes antiquorum cronicas complectens (FT) and Malleus Maleficarum (MM).
Dozens of watermarks of several categories have been located and cataloged. A listing of the marks found on each leaf of the FT and MM has been constructed for continued use by future researchers. Study of the watermarks also sheds light on the codex’s binding.
Malleus Marginalia: What can be learned from the marginalia in Portland State University's edition of the Malleus maleficarum
In 2018, Portland State University Library Special Collections acquired a second edition Malleus maleficarum, printed by Peter Drach of Speier in 1490, which is bound with a copy of Werner Rolewinck’s Fasciculus temporum (printed by Prüss, Strassbourg).
In this copy, three separate notetakers’ handwriting may be identified. We know this because there are three distinctive scripts present in the margins of the texts, on the title page of the Fasciculus, and on blank folios between the two texts. This paper explains the relevance of the handwriting and the research behind the identification of the scripts.
The frontispiece image in the PSU codex is in the tradition of ‘the education of the prince,’ a popular choice for early printed works, particularly historical chronicles and similar manuscripts related to ancient times.
A portal with columns provides an entrance into the book, and also encloses and protects its contents. This shape, echoing the triumphal arches of classical antiquity, was a popular motif in renaissance publishing. Along with the king’s crown worn on top of a turban-like head wrap, the columns and arches suggest a connection to classical antiquity. Although most images do not reference an artist, making it nearly impossible to trace the origin of specific woodblocks, this particular image appears in books from at least three other late fifteenth-century publishers.
This image was also used for another highly popular fifteenth-century book: a collection of ancient eastern parables originally written in Sanskrit, and translated into Latin from Hebrew in the twelfth century. The use of identical images in the two texts strongly suggests thematic ties between the two, rendering them worthy of the same opening visual in the minds of their publishers.
Medieval watermarks were introduced into early printed works during the production process of the paper. It is not known exactly when or why they came into common use, but they did come to identify specific paper suppliers.
As the number of paper suppliers grew enormously in concert with the growth of popularity of printed books, identifying the watermarks of specific producers can provide the modern scholar with valuable information about an early printed work, including dating editions and providing insight into trading relationships and connections between paper-makers and printers.
This paper examines some of the watermarks present in the PSU’s edition of Rolewinck's Fasciculus temporum.
This paper seeks to connect the watermarks found in PSU’s codex to the printer (or printers) of the included texts, the Malleus maleficarum and the Fasciculus temporum. Specifically, this essay considers three watermarks found on the paper of the Malleus maleficarum, one of which, an ox-head with staff, occurs on a blank page between the Malleus and the Fasciculus temporum, which precedes it in the codex. These watermarks and their common variations are described and their inclusion in several watermark databases is discussed. The three marks found in the Malleus maleficarum may be directly connected to the printer, Peter Drach of Speier.
Following the printed text of the Fasciculus temporum in PSU Library's codex is a concise, six-line, handwritten verse genealogy which lists the three husbands and three daughters, all named Mary, of St. Anne, the mother of Mary and maternal grandmother of Jesus.
The source of this addition is the Legenda aurea, a popular compilation of hagiographies, composed in Latin by Jacob Voragine (1230 - c.1298) in approximately 1270. This content was included by the publishers of certain other editions of the Fasciculus temporum, but is not included in the printed portion of the PSU edition.
The development of the moveable-type press in the mid-fifteenth century led to the rise of a new industry, the manufacture and trade of printed books. Before this, written works existed as handwritten manuscripts individually produced by scribes.
The printing press allowed works such as the Malleus maleficarum and Fasciculus temporum contained within Portland State University’s codex to be produced in a significantly more efficient manner. The printers of the two volumes contained in the codex, Peter Drach and Johann Prüss, successfully avoided the pitfalls facing early printers to become successful in their trade, and may have actively cooperated in the production of the codex.