First Advisor

Michael Carl

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership


Educational Leadership and Policy




High school teachers -- China, Teachers -- China -- Job satisfaction, Education -- China -- History



Physical Description

3, v, 118 leaves 28 cm.


This study was designed to explore the beliefs of teachers in the People's Republic in China regarding education policy, work conditions in the schools, teacher education, student discipline, curriculum, and the teaching profession. Subjects were 60 secondary teachers in the Beijing area, from both "keypoint" and "ordinary" schools. The teachers completed a 60-item questionnaire, designed to assess multiple educational belief dimensions. The results revealed that, as a group, teachers perceived themselves as having poor social status, inadequate pay, limiting work conditions, and a lack of opportunities for advancement. Teachers also reported a high degree of stress and health problems. There were distinct patterns of responses reflecting beliefs that students should be given more freedom to speak their minds and that students' ability to think is more important than memorizing facts. Teachers expressed a high interest in helping students learn and working for the good of society. Regarding educational policy, teachers believed that the government does not adequately support neither education nor teacher preparation. This pattern of results varied by demographic factors. For example, male teachers reported stronger perceptions that their families lack pride in them as teachers. Teachers without degrees felt more strongly that resources at their schools were less adequate. Older, more experienced teachers reported a stronger belief in permissive parenting as the major cause of behavior problems in the schools, and agreed that parents should be responsible for their child's moral education. Younger teachers expressed the most dissatisfaction with their pay and also felt that younger teachers are more capable than older teachers. A cluster analysis revealed statistical separation of teachers into three groups. The first group of teachers was younger, less experienced, and better educated. They expressed the most dissatisfaction with being teachers and felt the lowest social status. However, they also believed that they make a difference in the lives of their students. The second teacher group reported teaching as more challenging and stressful, advocated the need for strong discipline, and felt they made little difference in their students' lives. These teachers were more experienced, older, and less educated. The teachers in the third group, who shared common demographic characteristics with group two, were the most positive about their social status, pay, and commitment to teaching. They reported more support and resources than teachers in the other two groups, and felt they made a difference in their students' lives. Results of this study extend previous findings regarding the beliefs of teachers in the People's Republic of China. Through the use of multivariate techniques, three types of teachers emerged. The implications of these findings are discussed both with regard to government interest in reforming educational policy and directions for future research.


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