First Advisor

Amy Driscoll

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership: Administration


Educational Leadership and Policy




Teachers -- Time management, Teacher-principal relationships, School management and organization



Physical Description

4, xii, 155 leaves 28 cm.


The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher allocation of time and to examine if that allocation of time was related to teacher perceptions of principal behaviors and school policies. The study emerged from a review of the time-on-task literature and the principal effectiveness literature which suggested that teacher allocation of time might be related to principal behaviors and school policies. Three research questions were posed: (1) How do teachers allocate time to teaching responsibilities? (2) What perceptions do teachers have of principal behaviors and school policies at their schools? (3) Is there a relationship between teacher perceptions of principal behaviors and school policies and teacher allocation of time? To address these questions, a random sample of full-time elementary, classroom teachers from a large suburban school district near Portland, Oregon, was used. These teachers represented fourteen moderate size schools with student populations ranging from 325 to 550. The "Tucson Teacher Job Description Survey" was used to measure teacher allocation of time in six areas of teaching responsibility: Instruction, Instructional Planning, Classroom Management, Diagnosis & Counseling, School System Responsibilities, Clerical & Administrative. Principal behaviors and school policies, derived from the Stallings & Mohlman (1981) study, "School Policy, Leadership Style, Teacher Change and Student Behavior in Eight Schools" were used to measure teacher perceptions of principal behaviors and school policies. Statistical comparisons using multiple regression analysis were used to predict teacher allocation of time based upon teacher perceptions of principal support. A three-way factor analysis did not confirm the principal behavior and school policy labels derived from Stallings & Mohlman (1981). Three new labels of principal support were established: Professional Support, Instructional Support, Resource Support. Five variables from the Professional Support category were found to be significantly related to the time allocation areas of Instruction and Diagnosis & Counseling. Findings from this study showed no significant relationships between Instructional Support or Resource Support to teacher allocation of time. Teachers reported to spend the most time in Classroom Management responsibilities. The least amount of time was devoted to School System Responsibilities. Teachers perceived principals in this sample to have a higher frequency of Professional Support behaviors than the other two categories. Principals were rated high in speaking preparation, setting an example by working hard, and looking out for the welfare of teachers. The availability of custodial services when needed was rated low by teachers. Information from this study will assist principals in knowing where teachers allocate time, how teacher perceptions relate to teacher allocation of time, and what principal support variables most significantly contribute to teacher time allocations. Teachers will be made aware of time allocation variables which may affect time allocated to student Instruction. Recommendations include additional research with other groups of teachers to substantiate these findings and further study into reliable scales which measure teacher perceptions of principal support.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).


If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL

Persistent Identifier