First Advisor

David Stuart

Date of Publication

Winter 4-3-2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Chemistry






Iodine, Borates, Catalysis, Chemical bonds



Physical Description

1 online resource (ix, 108 pages)


Biaryl moieties are important structural motifs in many industries, including pharmaceutical, agrochemical, energy and technology. The development of novel and efficient methods to synthesize these carbon-carbon bonds is at the forefront of synthetic methodology. Since Ullmann’s first report of stoichiometric Cu-mediated homo-coupling of aryl halides, there has been a dramatic evolution in transition metal catalyzed biaryl cross-coupling reactions.

Our work focuses on the discovery and development of an unprecedented reagent combination for metal-free cross-coupling. It is hypothesized that direct carbon-carbon bond formation occurs via a triaryl-λ3-iodane and that electrophile/nucleophile pairing is critical for success in the reaction. Proof-of-concept for this approach focused on the reaction between bromo 4-trifluoromethylphenyl (trimethoxybenzene)-λ3-iodane and potassium 3-fluorophenyltriolborate. The spectator ligand and counter ions are important parameters for both reactivity and selectivity of the aryl group transfer in this reaction. Moderate to good yields of biaryl products are obtained by this method. Experimental evidence supports the assertion of a metal-free cross-coupling reaction.


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