First Advisor

Mary K. Kinnick

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Community College Education






Self-esteem, Exercise for older people -- Psychological aspects



Physical Description

4, x, 276 leaves 28 cm.


The relationship between self-esteem and physical condition as measured by hand grip and leg press strength in 65 subjects from two retirement homes was examined in a pre-/post-test design. The originally selected subjects ranged from 60-99 years of age (10 males, 55 females). At the conclusion of the study, 54 subjects remained (5 males, 49 females). The functional description of the subjects was "frail elderly." Although most were mobile and alert, many had some physical or mental disability that prevented them from living independently. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: experimental (exercise) and two control groups. There was, however, cross contamination between groups and marked attrition in the experimental group. The study was then redesigned as descriptive and examined twenty hypotheses. No significant relationship was found between physical condition and self-esteem. However, significant negative relationships were found between age and physical condition and hours of rest and physical condition. Significant positive relationships were found between length of stay in the retirement home and self-esteem, hours of activity and leg press strength, and level of control in selection of retirement home and self-esteem. Most elderly subjects did not accept exercise as necessary. Rather, they believed that as the individual ages, the body's need for exercise decreases. The implications are that health education programs for the elderly should be directed toward the need for physical exercise to maintain strength. Strength is necessary for activities of daily living. The ability to maintain activities of daily living will help to improve and maintain the quality of life for the older citizen.


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Portland State University. School of Education.

Persistent Identifier