First Advisor

James McNames

Date of Publication

Spring 6-12-2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electrical and Computer Engineering




Cardiac pacemakers -- Design, Cardiac output -- Measurement, Cardiac pacing, Impedance, Bioelectric, Electrophysiology



Physical Description

1 online resource (xii, 72 pages)


Cardiac output, the volume of blood pumped by the heart over time, is a powerful clinical metric used by physicians to assess overall cardiac health and patient well-being. However, current cardiac output estimation methods are typically invasive, time-consuming, expensive, or some combination of all three. Patients that receive artificial cardiac pacemaker devices are particularly susceptible to cardiac dysfunction and often require long-term cardiac monitoring support.

This thesis proposes a novel cardiac output monitoring solution which leverages an implantable intracardiac medical device. The principles of traditional impedance cardiography, an established cardiac output monitoring technique in practice for over fifty years, have been adapted to incorporate a leadless artificial cardiac pacemaker, an implantable medical device contained entirely within the heart. This novel method, colloquially referred to as Z-Cardio, monitors time-varying intracardiac impedance modulation to assess changes in cardiac output. In this study, technologies both old and new are synthesized to produce a novel and effective method of monitoring a critical metric of cardiac health.


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