First Advisor

Roger D. Jennings

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Psychology






Personal space



Physical Description

1 online resource (62 p.)


The present study examined the relationship between invasions of personal space and measures of glancing, blocking, leaning, head-shoulder orientation, movement away from the invader, and flight latency. These behaviors have been described in previous studies as occurring in response to spatial invasions, and the equilibrium model proposed to account for their occurrence. Hypotheses consistent with this model were tested in a 2 x 2 x 3 design which varied sex of invader, sex of subject and distance of subject from invader (1 foot, 2 feet, or 5 feet). None of the predicted relationships obtained, although females blocked more frequently than males, and also exhibited a greater variety of the target behaviors than did males. A significant difference was found for variety of behaviors emitted and distance, with Ss in the 1 foot condition exhibiting more of the target behaviors than those in the 5 foot condition. No other significant results were found. An alternate model to account for these discrepancies as well as previous discrepancies was discussed and suggestions for future research were made.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).


If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL

Persistent Identifier