First Advisor

Frank Wesley

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Psychology






Genetic psychology



Physical Description

1 online resource (92 p.)


The purpose of this library research thesis is to review the "longitudinal study" in terms of problems and present use. A preliminary search of the literature on longitudinal method revealed problems centering around two areas: (1) definition of "longitudinal study" and (2) practical problems of method itself. The purpose of this thesis then is to explore through a search of books and journals the following questions:

1. How can “longitudinal study” be defined?

2. What problems are inherent in the study of the same individuals over time and how can these problems be solved?

A third question which emerges from these two is:

3. How is “longitudinal study” being used today?

This thesis differentiates traditional longitudinal study from other methods of study: the cross-sectional study, the time-lag study, the experimental study, the retrospective study, and the study from records. Each of these methods of study is reviewed according to its unique problems and best uses and compared with the longitudinal study. Finally, the traditional longitudinal study is defined as the study: (1) of individual change under natural conditions not controlled by the experimenter, (2) which proceeds over time from the present to the future by measuring the same individuals repeatedly, and (3) which retains individuality of data in analyses.

Some problem areas of longitudinal study are delineated which are either unique to this method or especially difficult. The following problems related to planning the study are reviewed: definition of study objectives, selection of method of study, statistical methods, cost, post hoc analysis and replication of the study, time factor in longitudinal study, and the problem of allowing variables to operate freely. Cultural shift and attrition are especially emphasized. The dilemma is examined which is posed by sample selection with its related problems of randomization and generalizability of the study, together with the problems of repeated measurements and selection of control groups. These problems are illustrated with studies from the literature.

Not only are these problems delineated cut considerable evidence is shown that we have already started to accumulate data that will permit their solution. This paper presents a number of studies which have considered these problems separately or as a side issue of a study on some other topic. Some recommendations for further research in problem areas are suggested.

At the same time that this thesis notes differentiation of the longitudinal study from other studies, it also notes integration of results of longitudinal studies with results of other studies. The tenet adopted here is: scientific knowledge is cumulative and not dependent on one crucial experiment.

Trends in recent longitudinal studies are found to be toward more strict observance of scientific protocols and toward limitation of time and objectives of the study. When objectives of the study are well defined and time is limited to only enough for specified change to take place, many of the problems of longitudinal study are reduced to manageable proportions.

Although modern studies are of improved quality, longitudinal method is not being sufficiently used today to supply the demand for this type of data. Longitudinal study is necessary to answer some of the questions in developmental psychology. We have no alternative but to continue to develop this important research tool.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).


A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology.

Persistent Identifier