First Advisor

Milton Bennett

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.) in Speech Communication


Speech Communication




Ethnocentrism, Cultural relativism, Reference groups



Physical Description

1 online resource (115 p.)


The object of this investigation is to determine whether two aspects of reference group orientation, 1) multiplicity and 2) structural variation, are possible indicators of ethnocentrism. Most of the thesis is devoted to a theoretical formulation in which reference group orientation and ethnocentrism are placed in a peroeptual framework. Reference group orientation is defined as a person's use of a frame of reference that is formed through adoption of a reference group's perspective. Ethnocentrism is defined as a person's use of a frame of reference that keeps him from accepting the viability of other cultural frames of reference. The acceptance of the viability of other cultural frames of reference is defined as ethnorelativism. A flexible formation of cultural identity creates the conditions for a large number (relatively high multiplicity) and broad diversity (relatively high structural variation) of reference group orientations. It is hypothesized that those people who are aware of higher multiplicity and higher structural variation of reference group orientations will be more likely to accept the viability of other cultural frames of reference.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).


If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL

Persistent Identifier