First Advisor

Randy D. Zelick

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Biology






Fillings (Dentistry), Dental adhesives, Dental bonding



Physical Description

1 online resource (viii, 86 p.) : ill. (some col.)


Over 200 million dental restorations are performed each year in America. A dental restoration require a strong bonding of restoration to tooth structure and relies on the dental adhesive to create this mechanical and chemical bonding. Dental adhesion or bonding is the process of forming an adhesive joint between the composite and tooth substrate: dentin or enamel. Clinical problems such as microleakage at the restoration tooth interface, influx of fluids, or bacteria growth at the cavity wall can be prevented with adhesives that obtain a more intimate bonding. Longevity of the restoration can be enhanced by the adhesive that creates the tight bonding to reduce problems such as postoperative sensitivity, marginal staining, and recurrent caries. The goal of this research project is to investigate the influence of active scrubbing application as compared to passive non-scrubbing application of the etchant component in 4th generation etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Shear bond stresses have been measured and compared between application techniques. Verification of resin infiltration depth with each etchant application has been examined with scanning electron microscopy by mounting the etched and bonded enamel surface of the tooth in epoxy and slicing the tooth longitudinally producing a transverse, depth-wise view. Results from this study have clarified the role of resin tag formation as well as tooth morphology during an active acid etchant application for dental restoration.


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Portland State University. Dept. of Biology

Persistent Identifier