First Advisor

Ellen Skinner

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Psychology






Help-seeking behavior, Questioning, Achievement motivation in children, Elementary school teaching



Physical Description

1 online resource (174 p.)


During middle childhood, help seeking and avoidance are two ways children deal with academic problems. For this study, the dominant view of help seeking as a strategy of self-regulated learning was elaborated to consider it a way of coping framed within the Self-System Model of Motivational Development. This framework allows for the consideration of (1) the opposite of help seeking (help avoidance) as a motivated way of coping, (2) the central role of teachers, and (3) the operation of multiple self-system processes in shaping students' coping behaviors.

Self-report, teacher-report, and school record data from 765 3rd through 61 h grade students and their teachers were analyzed to determine the structure of help seeking and avoidance, the antecedents and consequences of these ways of coping, and developmental differences that may account for age-related changes in coping. Data were available from two time points, the fall and spring of one academic year, allowing for concurrent and change over time analyses.


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