Larry I. Crawshaw

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Biology



Physical Description

1 online resource (55 p.)


Goldfish -- Physiology, Noradrenaline -- Physiological effect




Cannulae were implanted into forebrain loci of goldfish (Carassius auratus; 45-90 g) to determine (i) the effects and site of action of intracranial norepinephrine (NE) injections on behavioral thermoregulation and (ii) the mechanism and the types of adrenoreceptors involved in the thermoregulatory effect of NE. After 30 min in a thermal gradient, implanted fish were injected with norepinephrinebitartrate salt (2.5-500 ng NE) in a total volume of 0.2 ul (carrier was 0.7% NaCl). Injections of 5, 10, 25, and 50 ng NE into the anterior aspect of the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP1 Peter and Gill 1975) led to consistent, dose-dependent decreases in selected temperature. No effect on temperature selection was observed following injections of 2.5 ng NE or control injections of 100 ng tartaric acid. The effects of injections into other loci, including intraventricular injections, were dependent upon the dose and proximity to the anterior NPP1 at sites adjacent to the anterior NPP, larger doses were required, and the effects became inconsistent. At sites further removed, no effect on selected temperature was observed1 included in this category were more caudal sites within the NPP and the nucleus preopticus.


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