First Advisor

David Stuart

Date of Publication

Summer 8-8-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Chemistry






Arylation, Organic compounds -- Synthesis



Physical Description

1 online resource (xxxi, 438 pages)


Functionalizing arenes and heteroarenes has been an active area of research since the 19th century, due to the presence of these molecular structures in many industrially important sectors. A tremendous amount of research has been published in achieving these chemical transformations using stoichiometric reagents and transition metal-catalyzed reactions. However, challenges still remain. An alternative and comparable methodology to metal-catalyzed reactions to overcome the drawbacks will advance this particular area of research is desirable.

Hypervalent iodine compounds offer a promising approach to metal-free arylation reactions. These mild, air and moisture stable compounds have showed significant success as non-toxic and metal-free reagents for the arylation reactions. In particular, unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts offer functionalization of complex arene structure in an efficient and sustainable pathway.

A base-mediated coupling reaction for the metal-free synthesis of alkyl-aryl ethers by using unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts and aliphatic alcohols is described. This method shows broad substrate scope with respect to both of the coupling partners to produce industrially useful alkyl-aryl ethers in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction is operationally simple, proceeds at mild temperature, and is atom-economical. Sustainability and synthetic utility of this reaction is demonstrated by the use of unsymmetrical aryl(mesityl)iodonium salts as the arylating agents. A limitation of poor reactivity of electron rich unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts was overcome by designing 2nd generation conditions and using trimethoxy benzene (TMP) as the auxiliary group.

Additionally discovery and development of an efficient method to access highly functionalized arynes from unsymmetrical aryl(mesityl)iodonium tosylate salts is presented. The aryne intermediates are generated by ortho C-H deprotonation of aryl(mesityl)iodonium salt with an amide base and subsequently trapped in a cycloaddition reaction with furan in moderate to good yields. Selective iodonium moiety elimination is discussed and the effect of auxiliary and temperature to reduce the regioisomeric ratio is demonstrated. Finally, additional coupling partner including benzyl azide and aliphatic amines are presented to show further utility of this methodology. Also, mechanistic investigations leading to the moderate reactivity of some electron rich unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts is discussed.


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