First Advisor

Martin J. Streck

Date of Publication

Summer 8-11-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Geology






Magmatism -- Indonesia -- Sulawesi Utara, Volcanic eruptions -- Indonesia -- Sulawesi Utara



Physical Description

1 online resource (xi, 119 pages)


Soputan volcano is one of the few basaltic volcanoes among 127 active volcanoes in Indonesia. It is part of the Sempu-Soputan volcanic complex located south of Tondano Caldera, North Sulawesi and commonly produces both explosive eruptions with VEI 2-3 and effusive lava dome and flow eruptions. Over the last two decades, Soputan had thirteen eruptions, the most recent in 2016. Most eruptions started explosively, followed by dome growth and in some cases pyroclastic flows. Our study focuses on understanding the magmatic system of Soputan and what processes are responsible for its highly explosive eruptions, which are typically uncommon for a basaltic magma composition. Our study includes tephra samples predating the 1911 eruptions, lava flow samples from the 2015 eruption, and ash from a 2015 fallout deposit.

Our whole rock major and trace element composition are virtually identical to lava flow and select pyroclastic deposit compositions of Kushendratno et al. (2012) for the 1911-1912 and 1991-2007 eruptions. Bulk rocks contain 49 to 51 wt.% SiO2, whereas 2015 ash samples are slightly more silicic with 53 wt.% SiO2, consistent with segregation of groundmass from phenocrysts in the eruption cloud. Mantle normalized incompatible trace elements indicate strongly depleted HFSE (High Field Strength Elements) and REE (Rare Earth Elements) signatures but with spikes at Pb and Sr and mild enrichment of Rb and Ba.

In comparison of data of this study with what was reported by Kushendratno et al. (2012), Fo68-79 olivine-hosted melt inclusions range from basaltic (48-52 wt.% SiO2) to basaltic andesite (54-55 wt.%) as compared to 54 - 65 wt.% SiO2 glass in Fo68-74 olivines. The compositional range of melt inclusions is consistent with 50% fractionation of multiple minerals including observed phenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene and oxides. Compositional trends with an inflection point likely reflect a change in the crystallizing assemblage, where early crystallization includes clinopyroxene and plagioclase, while later crystallization is dominated by plagioclase. New volatile concentration data from melt inclusions (S max. 0.35 wt.%, Cl max. 0.17%, H2O max. 5.2 wt.% from FTIR analyses) are higher than previously reported from younger samples (S max. ~0.07 wt.%, Cl max. 0.2%, H2O max. ~1 wt.%). H2O is relatively constant (~1-4 wt.%) for individual tephra samples (data by FTIR and water by difference method). Our inclusion data suggest that more volatile-rich magmas exist at depth and this is consistent with a model whereby recharge of deep, volatile-rich magmas into a more degassed and crystal-rich magma initiates a new, highly explosive eruption.


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