Portland State University. Department of Geology
Ashley R. Streig
Date of Award
Master of Science (M.S.) in Geology
1 online resource (ix, 113 pages)
Meers Fault (Okla.), Faults (Geology) -- Oklahoma, Stratigraphic geology -- Holocene, Geomorphology -- Oklahoma
The Meers Fault (Oklahoma) is one of few seismogenic structures with Holocene surface expression in the stable continental region of North America. Only the ~37 km-long southeastern section of the ~55 km long Meers Fault is interpreted to be Holocene-active. The ~17 km-long northwestern section is considered to be Quaternary-active (pre-Holocene); however, its low-relief geomorphic expression and anthropogenic alteration have presented difficulties in evaluating the fault length and style of Holocene deformation. We reevaluate surface expression and earthquake timing of the northwestern portion of the Meers Fault to improve fault characterization, earthquake rupture models, and seismic hazard evaluations based on fault length. We use a combination of airborne lidar (0.5--2 m-resolution), historical aerial photos, and new balloon-based photogrammetric (Structure from Motion) topography (0.25--0.5 m-resolution) collected in this study to analyze and characterize the fault scarp and local fault zone geomorphology. In the northwest, complex surface deformation includes fault splays, a left step, subtle monoclinal warping, and a minor change in fault strike. The fault is evident in the landscape as linear escarpments, incised channels on the up-thrown side of the scarp, and closed depressions on the downthrown side. I use topographic profiles, measured perpendicular to the fault scarp to show that the northwest scarp is characterized by decimeter surface offsets. Where the fault traverses the Post Oak Conglomerate the fault zone width rarely exceeds 25 m, in the Hennessey Shale I document an increase in fault zone width with deformation occurring over 20 m to 115 m. I further examined the northwest section of the fault in a paleoseismic excavation where weathered Permian Hennessey Shale and a ~1--2 m-thick veneer of Holocene alluvial deposits have been folded and warped during three surface-folding earthquakes. In an adjacent stream exposure these units are also faulted near the ground surface. Paleoearthquake age modeling (Oxcal) constrained by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of detrital charcoal and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sandy alluvial beds indicates two earthquakes occurred since ~6152-5550 cal. years BP and one possibly older event along the erosional unconformity along the Hennessey Shale bedrock. This analysis lengthens the Holocene extent of the Meers Fault by ~6 km, to ~43 km, and extends the paleoseismic record of the Meers Fault to ~9598 cal. years BP. These data will improve fault-rupture and earthquake recurrence models used for seismic hazard analysis of the Meers Fault.
Hornsby, Kristofer Tyler, "Constraining the Holocene Extent of the Northwest Meers Fault, Oklahoma Using High-Resolution Topography and Paleoseismic Trenching" (2017). Dissertations and Theses. Paper 3890.