First Advisor

Erik J. Sánchez

Date of Publication

Fall 12-1-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Applied Physics






Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent probes, Two-photon absorbing materials



Physical Description

1 online resource (xv, 117 pages)


As optical microscopy techniques continue to improve, most notably the development of super-resolution optical microscopy which garnered the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014, renewed emphasis has been placed on the development and use of fluorescence microscopy techniques. Of particular note is a renewed interest in multiphoton excitation due to a number of inherent properties of the technique including simplified optical filtering, increased sample penetration, and inherently confocal operation. With this renewed interest in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, comes an increased demand for robust non-linear fluorescent markers, and characterization of the associated tool set.

These factors have led to an experimental setup to allow a systematized approach for identifying and characterizing properties of fluorescent probes in the hopes that the tool set will provide researchers with additional information to guide their efforts in developing novel fluorophores suitable for use in advanced optical microscopy techniques as well as identifying trends for their synthesis.

Hardware was setup around a software control system previously developed [1]. Three experimental tool sets were set up, characterized, and applied over the course of this work. These tools include scanning multiphoton fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity, an interferometric autocorrelator for precise determination of the bandwidth and pulse width of the ultrafast Titanium Sapphire excitation source, and a simplified fluorescence microscope for the measurement of two-photon absorption cross sections.

Resulting values for two-photon absorption cross sections and two-photon absorption action cross sections for two standardized fluorophores, four commercially available fluorophores, and ten novel fluorophores are presented as well as absorption and emission spectra.


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