First Advisor

John D. Lind

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Public School Administration and Supervision






Basic education, Elementary school administration



Physical Description

4, ix, 168 leaves 28 cm.


The purpose of this study was to investigate and to determine the effectiveness of the Basic Skills Program. This was a program developed at Clackamas Elementary School that implemented many of the effective school characteristics along with analyzing low-achievement areas in the California Achievement Test and organizing an instructional program that would teach to those low areas. This study compared achievement test results from the Spring pf 1982 for grades four, five, and six (approximately 140 students) with achievement test results from the Spring of 1983. The treatment to improve low areas as determined by the California Achievement Test results of Spring, 1982, consisted of teachers administering extra work sheets that covered the deficient skills, a homework program, six week grade level meetings and strand tests that evaluated students progress. Many effective school characteristics were incorporated into the program such as the principal developing: high expectations for student achievement, a homework policy, discipline policy, a positive school climate through student and staff activities, and grade level meetings where the administrator was involved with instruction. The factorial multivariate analysis of variance on the Normal Curve Equivalents and the factorial analysis of variance performed on each dependent variable results indicated that the Basic Skills program had no or negative effect on the students achievement. Students tended to show greater growth in the control year than in the treatment year. The reasons for this treatment failure can be better understood by analyzing the teacher survey given to the teachers at the end of the treatment year. The survey results indicated that the teachers did not like the materials used in the program. They were not committed to the program nor did they value the need for such a program. Change literature indicates that in order for change to be effective the program must provide for (1) time for participants to grow to value the program, (2) consensus decision making, (3) time for reevaluation of the program, (4) inservice training that extends into the classroom so that teachers have support during the change, and (5) rewards and payoffs for the participants. Change is possible with these considerations but if elements are left out, as was the case in the Clackamas Elementary Basic Skills Program, the change will not occur.


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Portland State University. School of Education.

Persistent Identifier