Portland State University. Department of Physics
Date of Publication
Master of Science (M.S.) in Physics
Electronic noise, Image converters, Signal processing
1 online resource (vii, 35 pages)
Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise is a random noise source defined by discrete and metastable changes in the magnitude of a signal. Though observed in a variety of physical processes, RTS is of particular interest to image sensor fabrication where progress in the suppression of other noise sources has elevated its noise contribution to the point of approaching the limiting noise source in scientific applications.
There have been two basic physical sources of RTS noise reported in image sensors. The first involves a charge trap in the oxide layer of the source follower in a CMOS image sensor. The capture and emission of a charge changes the conductivity across the source follower, altering the signal level. The second RTS source in image sensors has been reported in CCD and CMOS architectures and involves some metastability in the structure of the device within the light collection area.
A methodology is presented for the analysis of RTS noise. Utilizing wavelets, a time-based signal has white noise removed, while RTS transitions are preserved. This allows for the simple extraction of RTS parameters, which provide valuable insight into defects in semiconductor devices. The scheme is used to extract RTS transition amplitudes and time constants from radiation damaged CMOS image sensor pixels.
Finally, the generation of ionizing radiation induced RTS centers is investigated and discussed. Surprisingly, the number of RTS centers does not scale linearly with absorbed dose, but instead follows a quadratic dependence. The implications and possible mechanisms behind the generation of these RTS centers are discussed.
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Hendrickson, Benjamin William, "Dark Current RTS-Noise in Silicon Image Sensors" (2018). Dissertations and Theses. Paper 4475.