First Advisor

Clyde L. Calvin

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Biology






Boschniakia hookeri, Shoots (Botany), Roots (Botany) -- Diseases and pests



Physical Description

1 online resource (vi, 54 p.)


Boschniakia hookeri Walpers has been found to parasitize the roots of Gaultheria shallon Pursh, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l.) Spreng, and Vaccinium ovatum Pursh, all members of the Ericaceae. This is the first documented report of the parasitism of Vaccinium ovatum. The subterranean shoot of B. hookeri originates endogenously from the perennial tubercle of the parasite. The shoot has an eustele, composed of collateral vascular bundles, arranged in four composite fronts and separated by four wide 'leaf gaps.' Pits on metaHylem vessels range from nearly circular to laterally elongated. Rll vessel members have simple perforations. Ouerall, the Hylem of subterranean shoots contained relatively few tracheary elements. Phloem is abundant, with radial series of sieve tube members that have simple sieve plates. Brachysclereids forming large clusters are positioned to both the inside and outside of the vascular bundles. Abundant stomata are present and frequently raised above the shoot surface. RHillary buds along subterranean shoots are capable of producing flowers or branch shoots. Considerable secondary growth occurs in maintained shoots below developing branch shoots. This manifested by the additional production of secondary Hylem and phloem, and the formation of a protective cuticular epithelium. This study of B. hookeri supports the view that the short and fleshy character of the subterranean shoot, increased presence of phloem, reduction of leaves to scales, and a perennial nature are specializations associated with the holoparasitic mode of life.


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