First Advisor

John A. Tetnowski

Term of Graduation

Spring 1995

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Speech Communication


Speech Communication




Voice frequency, Voice culture, Voice -- Care and hygiene



Physical Description

1 online resource (2, v, 73 pages)


Differences may exist between the voice qualities of those who professionally use and train their voices and those who do not. The examination of fundamental frequency and frequency range m actresses and non-actresses is integral to determining voice quality differences in these populations. These differences, whether the result of frequent use or training of the voice, may exist relative to fatiguing conditions such as may be experienced by actresses in the course of their work. Fatigue has been shown to produce greater effects in normals than in performers, particularly in singers (Gelfer, Andrews, and Schmidt, 1991). Little research has been found comparing actresses to non-actresses in such an interaction effect. In order to determine whether a separate set of normative values should be sought for actresses, it is first necessary to determine whether significant differences exist between these populations in voice quality parameters.

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not significant changes in fundamental frequency and frequency range occurred in non-actresses relative to actresses as a result of fatigue. The subjects for the study included ten actresses between the ages of 20 and 30 who had a minimum of one quarter of voice training and three years of acting experience and ten women of the same age group who had no voice training or experience in acting. Each subject passed a puretone audiometric screening, had a negative history of voice disorders, and had not smoked within the last year.

These two groups were evaluated for: 1) fundamental frequency in prolonged productions of the vowel lal; 2) speaking fundamental frequency in connected speech; 3) frequency range in sung scales; and 4) frequency range in connected speech.

Data was statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA tests with repeated measures. No significant interactions occurred between group and time, suggesting that non-actresses did not produce a greater shift than did actresses in fundamental frequency or frequency range as a result of fatigue. These results contradicted some findings and supported other findings of previous research based on similar samples.


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