First Advisor

Robert Bass

Date of Publication

Spring 7-10-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electrical and Computer Engineering




Distributed resources (Electric utilities), Electric power systems -- Load dispatching



Physical Description

1 online resource (viii, 155 pages)


Distributed energy resources like residential electric water heaters and residential battery inverter systems offer a small amount of change to the grid individually. When aggregated however, these assets can cause major effects to the electric grid. Aggregating these resources allows them to take on generator-like functions with the ability to increment power and decrement power.

The Western Energy Imbalance Market is an energy market offering 15 minute and 5 minute markets for energy transactions between balancing areas. Generation assets make increment and decrement bids. Traditionally the only entrants to this market have been large scale generators and large scale assets legally designated as generators. Aggregated distributed resources could offer the same increments and decrements from managing residential assets like electric water heaters and batteries.

DERAS, a Distributed Energy Resource Aggregation System developed by the Portland State Power Lab group, is an aggregator of residential resources that could offer increment and decrement bids to an energy market, like an Energy Imbalance Market. This research models and simulates aggregations of distributed energy resources. This work analyzes the effects of 10,000 electric water heaters and 10,000 battery inverter systems. A simulation program was built to simulate regular use of these assets, and then add the additional effects of a decrement bid into the Western Energy Imbalance Market. The effects of the bids on energy levels inside the water heaters and batteries are examined. The power imported from the grid is also analyzed as an effect of the aggregator attempting to cover a generation decrement bid.


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