First Advisor

Rhea Paul

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Speech Communication


Speech Communication




Reading (Elementary), English language -- Phonology, Slow learning children



Physical Description

1 online resource (2, v, 80 p.)


This study was part of the Portland Language Development Project, a longitudinal study of early expressive language delay. Its purpose was twofold. The first was to examine phonological and reading abilities in second grade children with a history of language delay. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between phonological processing abi1ities and reading skills in these children. Second grade children were assigned to one of three groups, based on their history and current Development Sentence Score (DSS) score: (a) normal language (NL), those with more than 50 words at 20-34 months and above the tenth percentile on the DSS; (b) history of delay, but currently normal expressive language (HX), those with fewer than 50 words at 20-34 months and above the tenth percentile on the DSS; and (c) history of delay with continued performance below normal (ELD), those with fewer than 50 words at 20-34 months and below the tenth percentile on the DSS. The children were evaluated by means of the Reading Recognition and Reading Comprehension subtests of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (Dunn & Mackwardt, 1970), three complex phonological production tasks, and the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LAC) (Lindamood & Lindamood, 1979), which assesses phonological awareness. This study compared the reading and phonologica1 scores of the three groups to determine if there are any significant differences. The results showed no significant differences in reading abilities. There were significant differences on the complex phonological task of naming pictures, between the NL and HX group, and there were significant differences on the LAC, between the NL group and the ELD group, and between the HX group and the ELD group. Reading and phonological scores of the children with a history of late talking were correlated, using a regression analysis to determine whether reading recognition and reading comprehension could be predicted from the phonological production and LAC tasks. The LAC was the only variable that correlated with the Reading Recognition or Reading Comprehension subtests. The LAC accounted for 39% of variance of the Reading Recognition score, and 27% of the variance of the Reading Comprehension score.


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