First Advisor

Maura Kelly

Date of Publication

Summer 8-5-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Sociology






Men -- Alcohol use -- Eswatini -- Attitudes, Men -- Alcohol use -- Social aspects -- Eswatini, Masculinity -- Eswatini, Women -- Alcohol use -- Eswatini -- Public opinion, Sex role, Unsafe sex.



Physical Description

1 online resource (iii, 84 pages)


This study focuses on the narratives Swazi men create around drinking, masculinity, and sexual behavior. Alcohol myopia theory, motivational-expectation theory of drinking, and Connell's theory of masculinities were used to create research that details how alcohol and the cultural environment of gendered social drinking intertwine and interact with each other to form the gender structure of eSwatini. Twenty Swazi men were sampled by convenience, given semi-structured interviews, and questioned about their perceived and internal reasoning for the drinking of themselves and others, the observed drinking behaviors of others, their own drinking behaviors, how they viewed women in and accepted women into the gendered social drinking environment, and their own sexual behaviors while drinking or intoxicated. It was found that Swazi men drink as a performance of hegemonic masculinity and drinking is central to the masculine identities of the culture. Traditional and hyper masculine hegemonic masculinities as well as a number of subordinate and alternative masculinities are found in the narratives surrounding the gendered social drinking environment. An emphasized femininity is expected from women to avoid social drinking entirely while men gain a patriarchal dividend from women engaging in a pariah femininity through being present in the social drinking environment. The study concludes with recommendations for future research and international development efforts.


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