First Advisor

Bradley Wipfli

Term of Graduation

Winter 2020

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Health Studies


Health Studies



Physical Description

1 online resource (v, 41 pages)


Level of life satisfaction is not something of which many sit down and take appraisal. However, levels of life satisfaction, especially low levels of life satisfaction, can have a direct effect on health. Low levels of life satisfaction cause an increase in self-reported stress. Inversely, high levels of stress cause a decrease in life satisfaction. This decrease in life satisfaction is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. A majority of student-athlete healthcare is centered around the physical aspects of health, with mental health just recently becoming a concern. It was apparent through the research for this study that life satisfaction scores can be a good indicator and predictor of possible deficits in both. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the life satisfaction levels of collegiate football players competing at the Division I AA (DI AA) and Division III (DIII) levels. Satisfaction with life scores were compared between the two divisions with the hypothesis that higher perceived stress levels at the Division I AA level lead to lower Satisfaction with Life scores. The secondary hypothesis being that those experiencing lower levels of perceived control would also report lower life satisfaction. Collegiate football players from Linfield College (DIII) and Portland State University (DI AA) institutions we contacted via email and asked to complete a survey via Survey Monkey. In total 46 individuals responded to the survey (DI AA = 22) (DIII = 19). Of the 46 total respondents, five failed to indicate the institution with which they are affiliated. The survey consisted of two portions. The first portion was a demographics survey asking about their past and current athletic experiences and exposures. The second was a previously validated Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener, Emmons, Larsen&Griffin, 1985). The primary hypothesis was not supported by the data collected, as both programs reported similar SWLS scores (Linfield=22.51, Portland State University= 23.74) and both fell into the "slightly satisfied" category of the SWLS satisfaction range. Institutions were combined for the remainder of the analysis. The secondary hypothesis was supported as a statistically significant relationship between perceived control and SWLS was found (Pearson value= .603, Sig. (2-tailed)= 0.00). An additional statistically significant relationship between perceived control and average hours of sleep per night was found (Pearson value=.346, Sig. (2-tailed)= .025)


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