First Advisor

Joel S. Steele

Term of Graduation

Winter 2021

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Applied Psychology






Courtesy in the workplace -- Statistics, Meta-analysis, Work environment



Physical Description

1 online resource (v, 158 pages)


Workplace incivility and its negative impacts on individuals, teams, and organizations have been widely studied. However, the literature lacks a comprehensive understanding of incivility from the instigator's perspective. The purpose of this dissertation was to demonstrate a set of meta-analytic relationships with instigated incivility to understand what individual, interpersonal, and organizational factors facilitate or prevent incivility instigation. Additionally, this work aimed to empirically test moderating effects of the relationship between experienced and instigated incivility, elucidating the conditions under which targets of incivility are more or less likely to instigate incivility in turn. This meta-analysis included 35,344 workers from 76 independent samples. Results showed that instigated incivility was related to several correlates including psychological ill-being, p = .37, and well-being, p = -.17; physical well-being, p = -.25; personal dispositions that are risk factors, p = .47, and preventative factors, p = -.34; negative, p = .28, and positive, p = -.33, job attitudes; positive team characteristics, p = -.28; job demands, p = .10; and experienced, p = .61, and observed, p = .58, incivility. Moderator analyses showed that the relationship between experienced and instigated incivility was weaker for older participants and under conditions of greater job control and work group civility, and that the instrument used to measure instigated incivility had no impact on the strength of effects. This study contributes to the existing literature by synthesizing findings from past work and identifying areas for future work. These findings also have important practical implications for the development and implementation of incivility interventions.


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Persistent Identifier

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